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a.m., ante meridiem (before noon)
p.m., post meridiem (after noon)
These abbreviations are usually set, as above, in small capitals with no space added between them. This is the common American printed style and the preference of the University of Chicago Press.
Do not use the following social title abbreviations:
Mr.; Mrs.; Messrs.; Ms.; M.; MM.; Mme; Mlle; Dr.; Esq.; Ph.D.; MLS
Common abbreviations should be typed solid—YMCA, FBI—without periods. If using unfamiliar initials, put them in parentheses after first mention of organization. All further references to the organization can be by initials. Exception is when the organization is at the beginning of a sentence.
With a few exceptions, abbreviations should not be used in addresses in running text. The following terms should be spelled out:
Avenue, Boulevard, Building, Court, Drive, Lane, Parkway, Place, Road, Square, Street, Terrace; North, South, East, West.
Exceptions are the abbreviations: NW, NE, SE, and SW used in some city addresses after the street name.
Addresses may be abbreviated in such closely set matter as lists, tables, or the calendar: Ave., Blvd., Bldg., Ct., Dr., La. or Ln., Pkwy., Pl., Rd., Sq., St., Terr.; N., S., E., W. (before street name).
The names of states, territories, and possessions of the United States should always be given in full when standing alone. When they follow the name of a city or some other geographical term, it is preferable to spell them out except in lists, tabular matter, notes, bibliographies, indexes, and mailing addresses. Use the University of Chicago abbreviations for the states in running text, use the U.S. zip code abbreviations in the calendar.
When more than two things or persons are involved, among is usually called for: “The money was divided among the four players.” When, however, more than two are involved but each is considered individually, between is preferred: “an agreement between the six heirs.” (The Elements of Style)
In text, give publisher and year in parentheses. Example: In Paris: An Architectural History (Yale University Press, 1993), the author . . . .
Capitalize titles when they precede name, e.g., ILA President Pamela Gaitskill; lower case when they follow the name, e.g., Pam Gaitskill, ILA president.
Capitalize proper nouns only when full form is used, e.g., Illinois Library Association, ILA Annual Conference Program Committee, ILA Annual Conference, Chicago Public Library; lower case partial forms, e.g., the association, the committee, the forum, annual conference, the library.
Use commas before conjunction in a series, e.g., includes books, videos, and CD-ROM.
database (one word); listserv (one word); online (one word); Web page (two words capital W); Web site (two words capital W); and http://www.------.
Don’t use apostrophe before “s”: ‘60s, ‘70s, ‘80s, ‘90s, and mid-1970s
Dollars and Cents
2 cents and $2, but not $.02 or $2.00
For a book:
Surname, Given, Title, (City: Publisher, year), pp. 2022-208
For a journal:
Surname, Given,“Title,” Journal, vol. 1, date, p. 10.
manager-elect; president-elect; vice president
no hyphen—ex officio
Italicize titles of all works. Use quotation marks for articles that appear in other works. For conference/program titles, the conference should be in roman, e.g., Reaching Forward Conference or ILA Annual Conference, and quotes for program presentations, e.g., “The Power of Positive Thinking.”
Use Native Americans not Indians
Use Alaskan Natives not Eskimos
Use African Americans. Hyphenate as adjective: African-American art
Use Asians not Orientals
Use Hispanics—this is the accepted term particularly in the west and southwestern part of the U.S.; the term Latino is used more frequently in the east
Use disabled people not “the disabled” when referring to the general group (latest preference among disabled people according to American Libraries)
Spell out whole numbers from one through ninety-nine. See The Chicago Manual of Style for other general principles.
One word spellings
Don’t hypenate words preceded by non: nonperson, nonmember, nonviolent, nonsexist, nonfiction, unless second element is more than one word (non-English-speaking people); a proper noun (non-British); or ambiguous without a hyphen (non-native, non-art).
fundraising or fundraiser
Percent or %
Spell out percent in “humanistic” copy, e.g., 45 percent. The symbol % is used for statistical copy only.
All punctuation appears inside quotation marks.